Welcome to our easy learning site on human anatomy. Here we are going to give some general idea about the human anatomy and we think it will be quite helpful for the common people and as well as the students of different faculty.
The features of structure we can see in our naked eye are called the gross anatomy. But many other features can be observed only under a microscope and study to these is called histology. The science of anatomy which deals with the development of tissues and organs before birth is called embryology. But here we are going to get some simple idea of human anatomy is the gross anatomy.
Head is the upper most part of the human body. The forehead, the eyes, the nose, the cheeks and the chin are the parts of the head. There is neck below the head. There is a region below the neck that we called chest, but in anatomical terminology it is called thorax. The thorax is like a bony cage within which the heart and lungs lie. Below the thorax the abdomen is situated, which contains several organs of vital importance to the body. The abdomen extended down to hips and the region of the abdomen connected to hips is called pelvis. A trunk is made together with thorax and abdomen. Upper and lower limbs or extremities are attached to the trunk. The upper limbs are related with shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, palm, fingers and thumb. The lower limbs related terms are as hip, knee, ankle, foot and toes. The thigh is called the region between the hip and knee and the leg is in between the knee and ankle.
Now let us be intimated with some common terms related with human anatomy generally used.
1) Anterior: – When a structure lies nearer the front of the body in respect of another structure is called anterior.
2) Posterior: – the opposite of anterior is the posterior.
3) Superior: – When a structure lies nearer the upper end of the body in respect of another structure of the body is called the superior.
4) Inferior: – In the same way the opposite of superior is called inferior.
5) Median Plane: – If the body divided into two equal halves, right and left, by a vertical plane passing through it. the plane is called the median plane, When a structure lies in the median plane it is said to be median position. When a structure lies nearer to the median plane then it is said to be medial in position and the opposite of medial is lateral. The medial side in case of hand is often referred as the ulner side and the lateral side as the radial side. And, in case of legs, it may be said as tibial to the medial and fibular to the lateral side.
The basic framework of the body in the human anatomy is provided by a large numbers of bones that collectively form the skeleton. The hard bones are not only maintaining their own shape, but also provide shape to the part of the body within which they lie. Bones meet each other at joints which allow movements. Bones are united each other at joints by some fibrous bands called ligaments. the muscles are generally attached to the bones. A typical muscle has two ends, i.e. origin and insertion; both of the ends are attached to the bones. They may be attached directly to the bones, but often the muscle fibers end in chord like structure called tendons, which are very strong structures. When a muscle ends in a flat fibrous membrane is called aponeurosis.
In case of limbs muscles within it are separated from skin, and from each other by tissue fibrous called fascia. Just beneath the skin the fibrous of the fascia are arranged quite loosely is called superficial fascia. Deep to the superficial fascia the muscle are covered by a stronger membrane named deep fascia. The membranes intervene between adjacent muscles are forming intramuscular septa. Between the muscles intervals there are blood vessels, nerves and lymphatic vessels. The vessels that carry blood from the heart to the various tissues are called arteries and those vessels that return this blood to the heart are called veins. Arteries and veins are connected within tissues by microscopic vessels are called capillaries.
Also some other terms in study human anatomy has quite importance. One of which is lymphatic vessels , which are thin wall tubes but difficult to see. Small bean shaped structures are present in certain situations of the course of lymphatic vessels are called lymph nodes. The nerves are solid cord like structures, each of which is a bundle of nerve fibers. Nerve fibers is a process of nerve cell called neuron. Most nerve cells are located in the brain and in the spinal cord.
In addition to these in human anatomy many parts of the body have specialized organs are commonly called viscera. Viscera like liver, kidney are solid type, intestines are tubular type or stomach is sac like. The viscera are grouped together in accordance with function to form various systems of organ.
Now we shall briefly discuss about the gross human anatomy of some important parts of the body.